This Agreement Ended The First Phase Of The Revolution

April 13, 2021

The Katipunan in Cavite was divided into two councils: the Magdiwang (led by Alvarez) and the Magdalo (led by Baldomero Aguinaldo, Emilio`s cousin). First, these two Katipunan councils worked together on the battlefield, as in the battles of Binakayan and Dalahican, where they won their first major victory over the Spaniards. But soon rivalries developed between order and territory, and they refused to cooperate in combat. The Philippines, a large archipelago off Southeast Asia, was colonized by the Spanish in the second half of the 16th century. Resistance to Spanish rule began among Filipino priests who angered Spanish supremacy over Roman Catholic churches on the islands. At the end of the 19th century, Filipino intellectuals and the middle class began to demand independence. In 1892 was founded in Manila, the capital of the Philippines on the island of Luzon, the Katipunan, a secret revolutionary society. The number of members increased dramatically and, in August 1896, the Spaniards discovered the plans of the Katipunan rebellion and forced the rebels to act prematurely. In March 1897, Emilio Aguinaldo, 28, became the leader of the rebellion. The seeds of the revolution were sown in the early 19th century, when the Philippines` forced isolation from Spain was destroyed by the country`s openness to foreign trade and the resulting development of an export economy by non-Spanish foreign companies (British, American, Chinese). Revolutionary and liberal movements in Europe and elsewhere, in addition to the persistence of the autocratic domination of monks, have also brought winds of change to the political climate in the Philippines. The most important event that made the revolution inevitable was on February 17, 1872, when three secular Philippine priests, leaders of the Movement for secularization (in fact, nationalization) of Philippine parishes, were publicly executed by Garrote for their alleged complicity in a military mutiny in an arsenal of Cavite on January 20, 1872.

By linking them to the mutiny, the Spanish administration, at the initiative of Spanish monks, found a convenient way to eliminate the cumbersome priests they considered Filibusteros (all those who displayed radical tendencies) to demand clerical equality with the Spanish monks. In late 1897, the revolutionaries were pushed into the hills southeast of Manila, and Aguinaldo had an agreement with the Spaniards. In exchange for financial compensation and a promise of reform in the Philippines, Aguinaldo and his generals would accept exile in Hong Kong. The rebel leaders withdrew, and the Philippine revolution was momentarily over. Bonifacio became the director of the Interior Ministry, but his qualifications were questioned. Under this control, he left the Assembly – Aguinaldo was sworn in the next day as President. On August 24, 1896, Bonifacio called Katipunan`s members for a mass meeting in Caloocan, where the group decided to launch a national armed revolution against Spain. [3] [52]:34-35 The event included a mass tear of Cedulas (certificates of municipal taxes), accompanied by patriotic cries. The exact date and exact location are controversial, but two options have been officially confirmed by the Philippine government: August 26 in Balintawak and later, August 23 in Pugad Lawin.